Prof. Ed. Handout 1 - LET EXAM - Questions & Answers

Welcome to LET Exam Questions and Answers!!!

Monday, January 22, 2018

Prof. Ed. Handout 1




Good day teachers! Please take time to read on this . Almost 10 questions po ang lumabassa previous exam from this one.

PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION



PART 1: KOUNIN'S MGT MODEL (1970)

✔stimulus boundedness -- teacher's attention interrupted by extrateneous stimulus
✔Thrust -- teacher interrupts students engaged in activities w/o considering whether the student is ready or not.
✔Dangels -- teacher interrupts activity of student and return to it again.
✔Truncations -- teacher does not return to current act. after being interrupted.
✔Overdwelling -- teacher focuses on a certian topic that will lead to too much time consupmtion, the lesson will slow down.
✔Fragmentation -- chunks of lesson for students to understand his/her lesson effectively or breakibg down of act. to cause too much time.
✔Flip Flop -- teacher changes its activity from current activity to new one and vice versa
whenever he/she changes his/her mind.
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PART 2 PO.

THEORIES AND THEIR PROPONENTS
✔Wilhelm Woundt = germanpsycologist "founder of modern psychology.
✔Titchener = structuralism psychology
William james, G. Stanley Hall, James M. Cattell.... these three promote "functionalism psychology
✔Charles darwin = theories to mental characteristics as human think, feel & behave(" evolutionary psychology")
✔Herman Ebbinghaus = associationism psychology
✔Edwin Guthrie = (stimulus and response ) :; temporal conguity
✔Edward Lee Thorndike = "satisfaction" "the law of effect".
✔Ivan Pavlov = involuntary behavior
✔Max Wertheimer = gestalt psychology
✔Otto Loewi = discovered "acetylchloline" respobsible in stimulation of muscles
✔Ulf von Euler discovered "norepinephrine" bringing our nervous system into "high alert" ✔Arvid Carlsson discovered "dopamine" the reward mechanisms in the brain
✔Jean Piaget -- cognitive dev't , info processing , dynamic interrelation.
✔Sigmund Freud -- psychosexual , psychoanalytic
✔Erik Erickson -- psychosocial
✔Lawrence Kohlberg -- moral dev't,
✔Burrhus Frederic Skinner -- operant cond.
✔Ivan Pavlov -- classical cond.
✔Edward Lee Thorndike -- connectionism
✔Albert Bandura -- social learning, neo - behaviorism
✔Robert Gagne -- sequence of instruction
✔Abraham Maslow -- hierarchy of needs , motivation theory
✔William Kohler -- insight learning
✔Robert Havighurst -- devt task theory
✔Benjamin Bloom -- bloom's cognitive taxonomy
✔Simpsons / Anita Harrow -- psychomotor domain
✔David Krathwohl -- affective domain
✔Jerome Bruner -- constructivist, spiral curr, instrumental conceptualism
✔Lev Vygotsky -- socio-cultural theory of cognitive devt , linguistic theory, Scaffolding
✔Edgar Dale -- cone of exp. (20% remember)
✔kohler,koffka, weirtheimer -- gestalt psychology
✔John Locke -- tabularasa , empiricism
✔Howard Gardner -- multiple int.
✔Noam Chomsky -- language acquisition theory , fr of linguistic, nativism
✔David Ausubel -- meaningful learning, graphic organizer, assumption
✔Charles Cooley -- looking glass self theory
✔John Flavel -- metacognition
✔Sandra Bem -- gender schema theory
✔Elliot Turriel -- social domain theory
✔Robert Sternberg -- triachic theory of int.
✔Johm Watson -- behaviorial theory
✔Maria Montessory -- transfer of learning, kinder garten preparation of children.
✔Edward Tolman -- purposive behaviorism and goal oriented
✔Edward Torrance -- creative problem solving
✔Bernard Weiner -- attribution theory
✔Daniel Goleman/coleman? -- emotional intelligence
✔Wolfgang Ratke -- used vernacular for approaching the class.
✔mencius -- idealistic wing of confucianism
✔hzuntzu -- realistic wing of confusianism
✔taoism -- lao tzu
✔Herbart spencer -- moral devt
✔Pestallozi -- symmetrical and harmonious devt of child
✔John Jacques Rosseau -- nature of child
✔Arnold Gesell - maturation theory
✔John Dewey - Learning by doing
✔David Froebel - Father of kinder garten
✔John Bowly - Attainment Theory
✔Edward Boro - Six Thinking Hats Theory
✔Auguste Comte - Father of Sociology
✔Carlos Linnaeus - Father of modern taxonomy.
✔John Amos Comencius - Fr. of modern education.
✔Erasmus Desiderius - Fr. of humanism/ social humanism
✔William Kilpatrick - Project method.
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PART 3:
IDEALISM -- plato
REALIAM -- aristotle
EMPIRICISM -- locke
PRAGMATISM -- dewey
EXISTENTIALISM -- hegel
PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS -- moore
ESSENTIALISM -- bagley
PERENNIALISM -- hutchins
PROGRESSIVISM -- dewey
RECONSTRUCTIONALISM -- brameld
BEHAVIORISM -- skinner or watson
STRUCTURALISM -- helmholts or wundt?
FUNCTIONALISM -- james,nugell, or carr?
PURPOSIVISM -- hormic
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PART 4 -ISM

✔NATURALISM -- only nature exist, nature is better than civilization (NATURALESA ng isang BAGAY)
✔IDEALISM -- spiritual, values, moral, socratic method
✔REALISM -- natural world, values arenatural and absolute, reality exist undercieved
✔PRAGMATISM/EXPERIMENTALISM -- practical, problem solving research, knowledge is what works, values are related, truth is warranted assertion.
✔ESSENTIALISM -- 3r's (4r's ngayon), achievement test, certain knowledge&skills are essential for rational being.
✔PROGRESSIVISM -- process of development, higher level of knowledge, the child's need and interest are relevant to curriculum.
✔EXISTENTIALISM -- knowledge is subjective, man shapes his being as he lives, we are what we do, deciding precedes knowing.
✔PERENNIALISM -- education that last for century, universalist, knowledge is eternally valid.
✔SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIVISM -- for better society, community based learning
✔RECONSTRUCTUONALISM -- the school should help rebuild the social order thus social change.
✔BEHAVIORISM -- learning is change in behavior, S-R relationship
✔EMPIRICISM -- knowledge comes thru senses, 5 senses (observatory learning)
✔STRUCTURALISM -- complex mental exp. such as image,feeling and sensation
✔FUNCTIONALISM -- focus to motivation, thinking & learning.
✔PURPOSIVISM -- individual hormones are responsible for the motive to strive towards fulfillment of his/her objective.
✔PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS -- reality is what verifiable, truth correspondes to reality, usage determines meaning
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PART 5: REPUBLIC ACTS
9155 -- Governance of basic educ. act of 2001
6728 -- GASTPE
7722 -- creating CHED
7784 -- " " of center of excellence
7796 -- creating TESDA
6655 -- Free public secondary act of 1988
4090 -- creating a state scholarship council to intergrate, systematize, administer and implement all program scholarships and appropriating funds.
5447 -- creation of a special educ. fund act enacted in 1968
-- organization and extension of classes
-- adding classroom to remote areas,barrios and provincial schools
6139 -- regulated the secretarian schools/
private school in charging higher tuition fee
7687 -- science and technology scholarship act of 1994
7743 -- establishment of city and municipal libraries.
8292 -- higher educ. modernization act of 1997
6850 -- an act to grant Civil Service eligibility under certain conditions to Gov. employees appointed under provisionap or temporary status who rendered 7 years of efficient service
8545 -- amending RA 7628 Expanded GASTPE Act
8525 -- Adopt a school program
8491 -- Flag and Heraldic code of the Ph.
7797 -- lengthen the school prog. to 200 days and not more than 220 days
8190 -- act of granting priority to residents of the brgy. where school is located in the appointment and assignment of school.
6972 -- act of stablishing DAY CARE CENTER FOR EVERY BRGY.
7624 -- integrating of drug prevention and control in the intermediate & secondary curricula and indigeneous learning system
7743 -- act providing libraries and reading centers throughout the Ph.
7877 -- anti-sexual harassment act of 1995
9163 -- NSTP of 2001
6193 -- regulation of tuition fees of private educ. institution
10627 -- anti-bullyinh act of 2013
10533 -- enhance basic educ. act of 2013 (K-12 PROGRAM)
9485 -- anti-red tape act
Executive Order (E.O.) 66 -- rule of cancellation of classes due to typhoon, flooding and other calamities.
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PART 6
Philosophers Related to Learners Development
✔SIGMUND FREUD -- "the mind is like an iceberg, it floats with one-seventh of its bulk avove water.
COMPONENTS OF PERSONALITY
ID -- pleasure center
EGO -- reality center
SUPER EGO -- conscience / judgment center.
PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEV'T
ORAL -- thumb sucking, biting
ANAL -- toilet training, control of their bowel.
PHALLIC -- sexual interest, genital stimulation.
LATENCY -- sexual urges & interest were temporary
GENITAL -- adult sexual interest and activities come to dominate.
Odipus complex - son vs father towards mother/wife feelings . (excessive attachment)(Phallic stage)
Electra complex - daugther vs mother towards father/husband feelings. (excessive attachment)(Phallic stage)
Personality Dynamics
LIFE INSTINCT
DEATH INSTINCT
===================================
✔ERIK ERICKSON -- "healthy children will not fear in their elders have integrity enough to fear of death.
PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES of DEVT
CRISIS -- a person goes through
MALADAPTATION -- result from failure to effectivity resolve the problem
MALIGNACY -- "
VIRTUE -- emerges when balance & resolution of crisis attained.
PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY STAGES
Stage: Early Childhood (2 to 3 years)
Basic Conflict: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Important Events: Toilet Training
Outcome: Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.
Stage: Preschool (3 to 5 years)
Basic Conflict: Initiative vs. Guilt
Important Events: Exploration
Outcome: Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.
Stage: School Age (6 to 11 years)
Basic Conflict: Industry vs. Inferiority
Important Events: School
Outcome: Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.
Stage: Adolescence (12 to 18 years)
Basic Conflict: Identity vs. Role Confusion
Important Events: Social Relationships
Outcome: Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
Stage: Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years)
Basic Conflict: Intimacy vs. Isolation
Important Events: Relationships
Outcome: Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation.
Stage: Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years)
Basic Conflict: Generativity vs. Stagnation
Important Events: Work and Parenthood
Outcome: Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.
Stage: Maturity(65 to death)
Basic Conflict: Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Important Events: Reflection on life
Outcome: Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.
===================================
✔LEV VYGOTSKY -- "the teacher must orient his work not on yesterday's devt in the childs but on tomorrow's.
SCAFFOLDING -- is the systematic manner of providing assistance of the learners to effectively acquire skills.
MKO(More Knowledge Others) -- higher level of performance.
===================================
✔JEAN PIAGET -- " the school should be creating men & women who are capable of doing new things not simply repeating what other generation have done.
STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVT.
SENSORY MOTOR (BIRTH - 2y/o) -- infants knowledge.
PRE-OPERATIONAL ( 2-7y/o) -- pretent to play but still struggle with logic,mental symbols interest.
CONCRETE OPERATIONAL (7-11) -- think logically, hypothetically and concepts, solve problems
FORMAL OPERATIONAL (11-UP) -- deductive reasoning and understanding of abstract ideas, think symbolically.
===================================
✔LAWRENCE KOHLBERG -- "right action tends to be defined in terms of general individual rights and standards that have been critically examined & agreed upon by the whole society.
LEVELS OF MORAL DEVT.
PRE-CONVENTIONAL -- obidience& punishment (consequences) , individualism & exchange
CONVENTIONAL --interpersonal relationship, maintain social order.
POST-CONVENTIONAL -- social contract and individual rights , universal principles, set of values and beliefs.
===================================
✔URIE BROFENBRENNER --
ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM THEORY
MICROSYSTEM -- sorroundings of individual: family, friends, neighborhood
MESOSYSTEM -- connections between context, school experiences to church experience.
EXOSYSTEM -- includes other people and places that the child herself may not interact with often herself but that still have a large effect on her.
PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY STAGES
Stage: Early Childhood (2 to 3 years)
Basic Conflict: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Important Events: Toilet Training
Outcome: Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.
Stage: Preschool (3 to 5 years)
Basic Conflict: Initiative vs. Guilt
Important Events: Exploration
Outcome: Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.
Stage: School Age (6 to 11 years)
Basic Conflict: Industry vs. Inferiority
Important Events: School
Outcome: Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.
Stage: Adolescence (12 to 18 years)
Basic Conflict: Identity vs. Role Confusion
Important Events: Social Relationships
Outcome: Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
Stage: Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years)
Basic Conflict: Intimacy vs. Isolation
Important Events: Relationships
Outcome: Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation.
Stage: Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years)
Basic Conflict: Generativity vs. Stagnation
Important Events: Work and Parenthood
Outcome: Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.
Stage: Maturity(65 to death)
Basic Conflict: Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Important Events: Reflection on life
Outcome: Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.
===================================
✔LEV VYGOTSKY -- "the teacher must orient his work not on yesterday's devt in the childs but on tomorrow's.
SCAFFOLDING -- is the systematic manner of providing assistance of the learners to effectively acquire skills.
MKO(More Knowledge Others) -- higher level of performance.
===================================
✔JEAN PIAGET -- " the school should be creating men & women who are capable of doing new things not simply repeating what other generation have done.
STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVT.
SENSORY MOTOR (BIRTH - 2y/o) -- infants knowledge.
PRE-OPERATIONAL ( 2-7y/o) -- pretent to play but still struggle with logic,mental symbols interest.
CONCRETE OPERATIONAL (7-11) -- think logically, hypothetically and concepts, solve problems
FORMAL OPERATIONAL (11-UP) -- deductive reasoning and understanding of abstract ideas, think symbolically.
===================================
✔LAWRENCE KOHLBERG -- "right action tends to be defined in terms of general individual rights and standards that have been critically examined & agreed upon by the whole society.
LEVELS OF MORAL DEVT.
PRE-CONVENTIONAL -- obidience& punishment (consequences) , individualism & exchange
CONVENTIONAL --interpersonal relationship, maintain social order.
POST-CONVENTIONAL -- social contract and individual rights , universal principles, set of values and beliefs.
===================================
✔URIE BROFENBRENNER --
ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM THEORY
MICROSYSTEM -- sorroundings of individual: family, friends, neighborhood
MESOSYSTEM -- connections between context, school experiences to church experience.
EXOSYSTEM -- includes other people and places that the child herself may not interact with often herself but that still have a large effect on her.
MACROSYSTEM -- which is the largest and most remote set of people and places and things to a child but which still has a great influence over the child.
===================================
✔ALBERT BANDURA -- SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
: environment affects child's personality : learninh occurs by simply observing people, people learned from what they see and the consequences of what they did
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PART 7
FOUR PILLARS OF LEARNING
✔LEANING TO KNOW -- focuses on combining broad gen. knowledge and basic educ. with the opportunity to work on a small number of subjects in the light of rapid changes brought about by scientific progress ang new forms of economic and social acitivity.
❇Learning how to learn and to discover, as to benefit from ongoing educational opportunities continuously arising throughout life.
❇Developing the faculties of memory, imagination, reasoning and problem solving.
❇Understanding about one's environment.
❇Communicating with others.
✔LEARNING TO DO -- emphasizes on the learning of skills necessary to practice a profession or trade.
❇applying in practice what has been learned.
❇developing vocational / occupational and technical skills
❇developing social skills in building meaningful interpersonal relationships.
❇developing competence, social behavior, aptitude for teamwork
❇enhancing the ability to communicate and work with others
❇managing and resolving conflicts.
✔LEARNING TO BE -- prioritizes the development of the human potencial to the fullest.
❇tapping the talents hidden with individual.
❇developing personal commitment and responsibilty for the common good.
✔LEARNING TO LIVE TOGETHER -- emphasizes understanding of others, their history, tradition and cultures, and also living and interacting peacefully together.
❇appreciating diversity of human race
❇being receptive to others and encounter others through dialogue and debate.
❇caring about others
❇working toward common objectives in cooperative undertakings.
❇managing and resolving conflicts.
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PART 8: COGNITIVE PERSPECTVE : GESTALT PRINCIPLE
✅German word means "whole, form, pattern or configuration"
✅the focus of this theory is on Perception and how people assign meaning to visual stimuli "The whole is more than the sum of all parts"
LAW OF PROXIMITY -- elements that are closer together be percieved as a coherent object.
LAW OF SIMILARITY -- similar will percieved as part of the same form.
LAW OF CLOSURE -- ignoring gaps in the figure.
LAW OF CONTINUATION -- patterns establish an impled direction, people tend a good continous line.
LAW OF PRAGNANZ -- stimulus will be organize into a good figure as possible.
LAW OF FIGURE/GROUND -- we tend to pay attention and percieved things in the foreground first.
INSIGHT LEARNING -- Gestalt adheres to the idea of learning takes place by discovery.



PART 9
✔Ripple Effect -- spreading effect of series of consequences caused by singlr action or event.
✔Hawthorne Effect -- type of reactivity effect in which individuals improve an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed.
✔Halo Effect -- cognitive bias which an observer overall impression of a person, influences the observers feeling and thoughts about the entity's character or property
✔Pygmalion Effect -- Shows the teacher's expectation (self-fulfillment)
✔Golem Effect -- low expection leads to decrease in performance.
REINFORCEMENTS
Positive -- presence of stimulus
Negative -- absence of stimulus
Escape -- removes stimulus
Avoidance -- prevents stimulus
Reinforcement -- increase of behavior
Punishment -- weakens response.



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